WELCOME!

Thanks to Dr. Yuong-nam Lee, we are pleased to announce that you may now download PDF files of all the papers from the proceedings of the 2006 Goseong International Dinosaur Symposium that was published in the Journal of the Paleontological Society of Korea vol. 22, no. 1.

To download a paper, please click on the paper's title below; they are listed here in the order in which they appear in the volume.

Lee, Y.-N., and Lee, H.-J. 2006. A sauropod trackway in Donhae-Myeon, Goseong County, south Gyeongsang Province, Korea and its paleobiological implications of Uhangri manus-only sauropod tracks; pp. 1-14 in Lee, Y.-N. (ed.), Proceedings of the 2006 Goseong International Dinosaur Symposium. Journal of the Paleontological Society of Korea 22.

ABSTRACT: Sauropod tracks at Jageun Guhakpo tracksite consist of 11 consecutive footprints comprising a trackway of about 8 meters. The average manus length and width is 64.4 cm and 67.0 cm, respectively. These tracks are broadly rounded shaped without claw mark in digit I. Digit V has slightly larger area than digit I and there is no separating for digits II-IV impressions. The average pes length and width is 112.3 cm and 95 cm, respectively which is the largest pes print in Korea. The inner trackway width clearly indicates a ‘narrow gauge’ pattern. A sauropod dinosaur belonging to the Diplodocidea or the Macronaria can be suggested as a candidate for the Jageun Guhakpo trackmaker based on skeletal and ichnological synapomorphies, animal size, and provenance. Jageun Guhakpo sauropod tracks support that Uhangri sauropod tracks are manus true prints made by sauropod dinosaurs that floated their hindquarters while walking along the bottom with their forelimbs. The floor of each print is raised into a starburst pattern of crests radiating from the center towards the outer margin, making an extraordinary morphology. The origin of this complex system of crests and intervening pockets were made as extrusion of the lower water-saturated mud upward through the overlying, elastic yet firm layers, by means of fractures generated by the impact of a dinosaur’s foot. It is proved by crests comprising of coarser lower layer than finer surface layer and fine vertical striations observed on the walls of crests. Therefore, the extramorphological features of Uhangri sauropod manus tracks can be much more reasonably explained by “cracked-open” model rather than “canopy” model recently proposed.

Fiorillo, A.R. 2006. Review of the dinosaur record of Alaska with comments regarding Korean dinosaurs as comparable high-latitude fossil faunas; pp. 15-27 in Lee, Y.-N. (ed.), Proceedings of the 2006 Goseong International Dinosaur Symposium. Journal of the Paleontological Society of Korea 22.

ABSTRACT: The record of dinosaurs from Alaska extends from the Late Jurassic through the Cretaceous. The record for the Late Jurassic is based on two photographed occurrences of dinosaurs, one a series of theropod tracks and the other a dinosaurian bone fragment. Both records occur in the southwestern part of the state. Similarly dinosaur records for the Early Cretaceous are represented but in very sparse numbers, consisting of a few footprint localities and a dinosaur skin impression locality that is also likely from this interval in time. Younger records of dinosaurs for Alaska also occur in the early Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian and Turonian). Such localities are growing in number and most are footprint localities. Generally these localities are confined to the northern part of the state. One exception to the footprint localities is that of a locality yielding a partial hadrosaur skeleton found in marine rocks in the south-central part of the state. By far the richest record of dinosaurs for the state is from the Campanian-Maastrichtian sequences of non-marine rocks. Whereas most of these localities are from northern Alaska, additional new localities have been found in the southwestern part of the state as well as in the central Alaska Range, near Mt. McKinley. This latest Cretaceous record consists of numerous fossil bone and footprint localities. The fossil vertebrate fauna recovered from Cretaceous rocks in Alaska include specimens of osteichthyan fishes, a chelonian, large and small theropods, birds, a hypsilophodontid, a pachycephalosaur, an ankylosaur, ceratopsians and hadrosaurians, as well as multituberculate, marsupial, and placental mammals. These specimens have been acquired through quarry and site excavations, and accumulated river bar and river bank float. The Cretaceous Gyeongsang Supergroup of Korea contains a comparably rich fossil vertebrate record. Whereas the Gyeongsang Supergroup is more prolific in the Early Cretaceous than the coeval Alaskan record it also contains fossil vertebrates that are correlative with the Campanian record of Alaska. Based on paleomagnetic reconstructions, both the Alaskan Cretaceous vertebrate fauna and the Korean vertebrate fauna represent ancient high-latitude faunas and should be examined in that light. In the modern Arctic, animals and plants demonstrate suites of unique features for life in extreme environments. Even though global climate in the Cretaceous in the high latitudes was milder than today some physical parameters, such as the quantity and angle of light, likely remained constant through time. Therefore, these Cretaceous vertebrate faunas hold valuable insights into adaptations for life in an ancient high-latitude environment.

Li, D., Azuma, Y., Fugita, M., Lee, Y.-N., and Arakawa, Y. 2006. A preliminary report on two new vertebrate track sites including dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hekou Group, Gansu Province, China; pp. 29-49 in Lee, Y.-N. (ed.), Proceedings of the 2006 Goseong International Dinosaur Symposium. Journal of the Paleontological Society of Korea 22.

ABSTRACT: Two track sites were discovered in the Hekou Group(Early Cretaceous), Yanguoxia, Yongjing County, Gansu Province, China. More than 108 dinosaur and pterosaur trackways occur on the same gray fine sandstone surface of the two sites. Site 1 (600 m2) contains 245 dinosaur, 25 pterosaur, and 4 bird tracks. A total of 1,392 dinosaur tracks with one pterosaur track are preserved in the Site 2 (1,000 m2). Dinosaur tracks attributable to theropods, sauropods, and ornithopods in occur both sites. One of the theropod trackways in the both site consists of an unusual didactyl footprints, suggestive of a dromaeosaurid theropod such as Deinonychus. Unusual sauropod and ornithopod trackways are also found at both sites, which appear to have been made by swimming sauropods and ornithopods in shallow water. These include unusual ornithopod trackways that have tail-drag marks between left and right footprints. A pterosaur trackway in Site 1 represents the first record of pterosaur footprints in China, which consists of six pairs of manus and pes and one isolated manus impression. This pterosaur trackway is also the first record from the Early Cretaceous in Asia. A comprehensive analysis of the tracksites deduced from overlapping trackway sequences indicates that the sedimentary environment changed gradually from terrestrial into lacustrine condition. The co-occurrence of dinosaur tracks such as theropods, sauropods, and ornithopods with pterosaur and bird tracks shows a unique faunal association in this area in the Early Cretaceous of China.

Farlow, J.O., and Argast, A. 2006. Preservation of fossil bone from the Pipe Creek Sinkhole (Late Neogene, Grant County, Indiana, U.S.A.); pp. 51-75 in Lee, Y.-N. (ed.), Proceedings of the 2006 Goseong International Dinosaur Symposium. Journal of the Paleontological Society of Korea 22

ABSTRACT: The fossil assemblage from the Pipe Creek Sinkhole (PCS; Grant County, Indiana, USA) preserves abundant bones from a diversity of late Neogene, large and small, terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates. We used several techniques to investigate diagenesis of PCS bones: scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and measurements of bone weight loss after ignition. Most PCS bone shows little surficial weathering. Internally PCS bone is also generally well-preserved, but at least one bone shows a small amount of cortical microbial attack. The chemistry of PCS bone is not unusual for fossil bone; the bone apatite is francolite. PCS bone shows small amounts of manganese and iron, both of which occur in greater abundance in sideritic fillings of bone pores, although most large openings in PCS bone remain unfilled by crystalline material. Microscopic, sideritic “hemispheroids” (often paired), probably of bacterial origin, abundantly occur on the trabecular surfaces of some PCS bone. Siderite is also abundant in numerous nodules in the otherwise unconsolidated PCS fossiliferous deposit. PCS bone apatite shows greater crystallinity than modern bone, with Full Width Half Maximum Values of the d002 apatite peak comparable to those seen in bone from other paleontological sites.

Winkler, D.A., and Rose, P.J. 2006. Paleoenvironment at Jones Ranch, an Early Cretaceous sauropod quarry in Texas, U.S.A.; pp. 77-89 in Lee, Y.-N. (ed.), Proceedings of the 2006 Goseong International Dinosaur Symposium. Journal of the Paleontological Society of Korea 22.

ABSTRACT: Jones Ranch is a unique Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian boundary) sauropod dinosaur accumulation in the Twin Mountains Formation (Trinity Group), Texas, U.S.A. Bones of at least four individuals are found together with large logs in a fluvial channel deposit. Sedimentary structures, taphonomic considerations and associated fauna and flora demonstrate that sauropod carcasses and trees decomposed in a seasonally dry stream bed before being transported to, or rearranged at, their final point of burial. Associated vertebrate fauna includes terrestrial and fresh water elements including the rare hybodont chondrichthyan Lonchidion anitae and lungfish. Abundant plant material from the site is referred to the extinct conifer Frenelopsis ramosissima. At Jones Ranch, sauropods dwelt within a low diversity coniferous forest with trees that reached above 20 meters in height. The death assemblage and abundant track sites in the Trinity Group suggest gregarious behavior in a sauropod that occupied both low diversity inland forests drained by ephemeral streams and higher diversity plant communities along the coast of a shallow sea.

Jacobs, L.L., Mateus, O., Polcyn, M.J., Schulp, A.S., Antunes, M.T., Luisa Morais, M., and de Silva Tavares, T. 2006. The occurrence and geological setting of Cretaceous dinosaurs, mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, and turtles from Angola; pp. 91-110 in Lee, Y.-N. (ed.), Proceedings of the 2006 Goseong International Dinosaur Symposium. Journal of the Paleontological Society of Korea 22.

ABSTRACT: Vertebrate-bearing fossiliferous outcrops of Cretaceous age in sub-Saharan Africa are rare because of younger superficial deposits, vegetation cover, and the widespread occurrence of Precambrian metamorphic plateau basement comprising much of the continent. However, one area of extensive marine and nonmarine Cretaceous exposures is found between the plateau and the coast in Angola. The Angolan margin was formed in conjunction with the breakup of Gondwana and subsequent growth of the South Atlantic. Cretaceous deposits are constrained in age by the emplacement of oceanic crust, which began no later than magnetozone M3 (approximately 128 Ma, Barremian). Shallow marine facies are exposed in sea cliffs but equivalent facies become increasingly terrestrial inland. Few vertebrate fossils have been described from Angola aside from sharks. Notable exceptions are the late Turonian mosasaurs Angolasaurus bocagei and Tylosaurus iembeensis from northern Angola. Those taxa are significant because they are among the earliest derived mosasaurs. Recent field work led to the discovery of a new skull of Angolasaursus as well as sharks, fish, plesiosaurs, the skull of a new taxon of turtle, additional mosasaurs, and the articulated forelimb of a sauropod dinosaur, the first reported dinosaur from Angola. In southern Angola, marine sediments spanning the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary are found.

Ji, Q., Ji, S.-A., Lü, J., You, H., and Yuan, C.-X. 2006. Embryos of Early Cretaceous Choristodera (Reptilia) from the Jehol Biota in western Liaoning, China; pp. 111-118 in Lee, Y.-N. (ed.), Proceedings of the 2006 Goseong International Dinosaur Symposium. Journal of the Paleontological Society of Korea 22.

ABSTRACT: The Choristodera is a poorly known clade, but very a distinctive group of aquatic reptiles, which has been found from the Late Triassic to the Late Oligocene in Asia, North America and Europe. Although thousands of choristoderian specimens have been collected from the Early Cretaceous non-marine beds in Liaoning, China, no direct evidences have been found to determine whether they were oviparous like sea turtles or viviparous like Keichousaurus hui of Pachypleurosauria (marine reptiles). Here we report a well-preserved specimen of Hyphalosaurus baitaigouensis with leathery embryonic eggs from the Jiufotang Formation in western Liaoning, China. It provides the first direct evidence to indicate that choristoderian reptiles are most likely viviparous like Late Triassic Keichousaurus hui from Guizhou, Southern China.

Yabumoto, Y., Yang, S.-Y., and Kim, T.-W. 2006. Early Cretaceous freshwater fishes from Japan and Korea; pp. 119-132 in Lee, Y.-N. (ed.), Proceedings of the 2006 Goseong International Dinosaur Symposium. Journal of the Paleontological Society of Korea 22.

ABSTRACT: The Early Cretaceous freshwater fish assemblages found in the Wakino Subgroup in northern Kyushu, Japan and the Nagdong Subgroup in southern Korea are the same in age, but different in depositional environment, because there is a common species, Wakinoichthys aokii, but other fishes differ. The Nagdong Subgroup was probably deposited near the sea, because of the existence of elopiform and albuiform fishes. The age of both subgroups may be slightly older than that of the localities of the Mesoclupea-Paralycoptera assemblage in southern China. The fish fossils from the Tetori Group are unique, somewhat earlier, and may support the gradual Jurassic-Cretaceous faunal transition hypothesized from the reptilian fossils, although evidence from these fish fossils is insufficient to confirm or deny the hypothesis.

Chiappe, L.M., and Dyke, G.J. 2006. The early evolutionary history of birds; pp. 133-151 in Lee, Y.-N. (ed.), Proceedings of the 2006 Goseong International Dinosaur Symposium. Journal of the Paleontological Society of Korea 22.

ABSTRACT: With more than 10,000 species—roughly twice as many as there are mammals or lizards—birds are by far the most diverse group of living land vertebrates. However, this enormous diversity is just a remnant of an ancient evolutionary radiation that can be traced back to the Jurassic, to the 150 million-year-old Archaeopteryx from southern Germany. Research on the early history of birds and the development of flight has been at the forefront of paleontology since the advent of evolutionary thought. For most of this time, however, the available evidence was limited to a small number of fossils largely restricted to near-shore and marine environments, and greatly separated both anatomically and in time. A burst of discoveries of Cretaceous birds over the last two decades has revealed a hitherto unexpected diversity; since the early 1990s, the number of new species described has more than tripled those known for much of the last two centuries. This rapid increase in discoveries has not only filled much of the anatomical and temporal gaps that existed previously, but has also made the study of early birds one of the most dynamic fields of vertebrate paleontology.

Zan, S., Wood, C.B., Rougier, G.W., Jin, L., Chen, J., and Schaff, C.R. 2006. A new 'middle' Cretaceous zalambdalestid mammal, from a new locality in Jilin Province, northeastern China; pp. 153-172 in Lee, Y.-N. (ed.), Proceedings of the 2006 Goseong International Dinosaur Symposium. Journal of the Paleontological Society of Korea 22.

ABSTRACT: Fossil specimens from a new Cretaceous locality near Gongzhuling City in Jilin Province, China, include two incomplete mammalian dentaries which represent a new genus and species referable to the eutherian family Zalambdalestidae. The locality is in basin-margin outcrops of the Quantou Formation, which is widely spread in the subsurface of Songliao Basin and which has been assigned ages ranging from the Aptian to the Cenomanian stages of the Cretaceous; it seems unlikely that the Quantou Formation could be younger than Cenomanian. Both dentaries possess an enlarged, procumbent first incisor combined with an interesting mosaic of both plesiomorphic and derived dental characters compared to taxa such as Kulbeckia kulbecke. For example,the new Gongzhuling specimens appear to show five premolars (including an almost fully molariform ultimate premolar) combined with only three incisors and a low but single-rooted canine. The trigonids on p5 and m1 are relatively open and non-compressed. This locality is likely to emerge as an important source of new information on "middle" Cretaceous vertebrates as additional mammalian, dinosaurian, and other specimens are described from it in the near future.

Currie, P.J., and Azuma, Y. 2006. New specimens, including a growth series, of Fukuiraptor (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Lower Cretaceous Kitadani Quarry of Japan; pp. 173-193 in Lee, Y.-N. (ed.), Proceedings of the 2006 Goseong International Dinosaur Symposium. Journal of the Paleontological Society of Korea 22.

ABSTRACT: In addition to the holotype skeleton of Fukuiraptor kitadaniensis, isolated teeth and bones of the same taxon have been collected from the Kitadani Quarry of the Lower Cretaceous (Barremian) strata in Fukui Prefecture, Japan. These provide additional information that help determine its phylogenetic position, and also represent a growth series. The holotype is an immature specimen, which was about 4.2 meters long. Other fossils from the same quarry are all from smaller individuals. Some of the juvenile bones are less than a third the linear length of equivalent bones in the holotype.

Kobayashi, Y., and Barsbold, R. 2006. Ornithomimids from the Nemegt Formation of Mongolia; pp. 195-207 in Lee, Y.-N. (ed.), Proceedings of the 2006 Goseong International Dinosaur Symposium. Journal of the Paleontological Society of Korea 22.

ABSTRACT: Two ornithomimids (Gallimimus bullatus and Anserimimus planinychus) and an enigmatic ornithomimid (Deinocheirus mirificus) from the Nemegt Formation (Maastrichtian) of Mongolia are reviewed in this study. Gallimimus bullatus is one of the best-known ornithomimids, but its diagnoses need to be revised. The length ratio of the manus/humerus in Gallimimus bullatus is 0.61. This is the smallest value in ornithomimosaurs (approximately 0.8 or more in other ornithomimosaurs) and may be a good character to diagnose Gallimimus bullatus as suggested by previous studies. Anserimimus planinychus is a unique ornithomimosaur in having strong deltopectoral crest of the humerus, dorsoventrally flat and nearly straight manual unguals, and long forelimbs. Anserimimus planinychus shares two characters (position of the biceps tubercle and alignment of the glenoid) with Gallimimus bullatus and has a long metacarpal I as in Ornithomimus edmontonicus (derived ornithomimosaur) and a long metacarpal III as in Harpymimus okladnikovi (primitive ornithomimosaur). The phylogenetic position of Deinocheirus mirificus has been problematic since its discovery. Preliminary phylogenetic analyses are tested in this study based on three large data matrices of Theropoda from previous studies. In two of the data matrices results indicate that Deinocheirus mirificus is a possible ornithomimosaur because it has some ornithomimosaur-like features (e.g., subequal metacarpals and weak deltopectoral crest of humerus), but the phylognetic status of Deinocheirus mirificus as an ornithomimosaurs is not confirmed because results using the other character matrix placed this taxon outside of the clade Ornithomimosauria.

Zelenitsky, D. 2006. Reproductive traits of non-avian theropods; pp. 209-216 in Lee, Y.-N. (ed.), Proceedings of the 2006 Goseong International Dinosaur Symposium. Journal of the Paleontological Society of Korea 22.

ABSTRACT: The reproductive biology of non-avian theropods, primarily maniraptorans, is revisited using recent fossil discoveries in the framework of the extant phylogenetic bracket. It is apparent that non-avian theropods shared some reproductive characters with crocodilians, some with birds, but also possessed their own unique features. Whereas the non-avian theropod reproductive system retained primitive archosaurian traits (two functional oviducts, hyper-ellipsoidal eggs), it also possessed derived bird-like characteristics (released one ovum per oviduct, complex eggshell ultrastructures, asymmetrical eggs). Behaviourally, non-avian theropods were more derived than crocodilians in some respects: they laid orderly clutches and the adults were in direct contact with the eggs during the incubation period. However, non-avian theropods and enantiornithine birds, like crocodilians, did not rotate their eggs during the incubation period, which suggests that such a behaviour evolved in birds more derived than enantiornithines.

Tomida, Y., and Tsumura, Y. 2006. A partial skeleton of titanosaurian sauropod from the Early Cretaceous of Toba City, central Japan; pp. 217-238 in Lee, Y.-N. (ed.), Proceedings of the 2006 Goseong International Dinosaur Symposium. Journal of the Paleontological Society of Korea 22.

ABSTRACT: A partial skeleton of a sauropod dinosaur was excavated from the Lower Cretaceous Matsuo Group (Valanginian to Barremian) in Toba City, central Japan. It preserves four caudal vertebrae, right and left humeri, and right and left femora. Other recovered bones are tentatively identified as left radius, right tibia, right fibula, and left ischium because of their fragmental preservation. This dinosaur is identified as a member of Titanosauria because it represents synapomorphies of the clade: (1) femoral fourth trochanter located on the caudomedial margin of the shaft, (2) approximately 0.89 of the humerus/femur length ratio, (3) presence of prominent "bulge" on the proximal lateral surface of the femur, (4) neural arch of middle caudal vertebra situated on the cranial half of the centrum, and (5) extreme eccentricity of the femur cross section (= 2.3). The combination of other characters may suggest that this dinosaur is a new taxon. The discovery of a possibly new titanosaurian dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Japan indicates that titanosaurians were more diverse in Asia, and their evolution was more complicated than previously thought.

Lü, J., and Ji, Q. 2006. Preliminary results of a phylogenetic analysis of the pterosaurs from western Liaoning and surrounding areas; pp. 239-261 in Lee, Y.-N. (ed.), Proceedings of the 2006 Goseong International Dinosaur Symposium. Journal of the Paleontological Society of Korea 22.

ABSTRACT: Many pterosaurs were found recently in western Liaoning and the surrounding areas. Of the 17 genera and 18 species named, only four genera can be assigned confidently to known families. Due to the incompleteness of pterosaur remains (some are represented by postcranial material, whereas others are known from skulls only), the phylogenetic relationships of these pterosaurs are unclear. Based on the modified character matrix of Kellner (80 characters), the relationships of Liaoning pterosaurs (56 taxa, including outgroups) are explored. Preliminary results show that: 1) Dendrorhynchoides and Jeholopterus belong to Anurognathidae; 2) the clade formed by Boreopterus and Feilongus is basal to other ornithocheirids; 3) Liaoningopterus is a primitive form of Anhangueridae; 4) Beipiaopterus is a possible basal ctenochasmatoid; 5) Eosipterus is basal to Germanodacylidae; 6) Eoazhdarcho and Eopteranodon may be early forms of Azhdarchoidea; 7) Chaoyangopterus and Jidapterus may belong to Azhdarchoidea, but they are more derived than Eopteranodon and Eoazhdarcho, and 8) three Chinese tapejarids form a monophyletic group.

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